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Sessionless Authentication With Encrypted Tokens
Storing user information is one of the biggest hurdles in creating a timeless web application. Somehow you need to identify the user without storing the data on the server or allowing it to interfere with the client. If you can solve this problem then you are on your way to a timeless program. Hidden symbols are the answer.
The First Problem
Convincing a customer is usually not a big deal. You’re just submitting a login form and having the user login with their username and password. To increase security you use a secure protocol like HTTPs. On the server you compare the entered data with the password in the database. If it matches then you can allow the user, if not then you deny the access.
That, to say, is the easy part. The queston now is how to remember that the user has confirmed: how to save their information. For every request back to the server you will need some kind of token. To send this token you have only two options on the web application: 1) you can add the token to any link and form, or 2) you can set a cookie in the user’s browser. Now every time the user requests back to the server you will receive a token.
Only one piece of your problem has been solved. A sign is just a sign. It will not say anything about the user. On the server you need another way to write the token to the valid credentials. One of the most common ways to do this is to use a token as a field identifier. Then you can just answer to save the thirst in the data section. This is a simple and effective method. It needs a role though.
Without a part
In most cases you won’t need a server-side module. There are many reasons for this, the most common being performance and reliability. Inventory management is costly and inventory management is difficult. Not having a role offers many opportunities. You can probably still have them part-like data stored in the database, such as the shopping cart, but in all cases with the site you will not have a role.
Without a field the first question is how to store information. The verification is still there and you still generate the signal. What goes into the sign is interesting. Your first option might be to store the user ID directly in the token. From the ID you can look up the user at will and see what permissions they have. However there is a less important security issue. Any user can just change their IDs and get access like anyone else!
The way around this security hole is to make the token opaque: the user has no way to read or change the data. This is what the session ID used to do, it was a visible key to the server session. Doing this without a field may seem impossible, but this is what encryption does. If you encrypt the token with a private key the user cannot read it. However, this does not prevent them from changing, and even with encryption they can find a working key. So you have to do a little.
Creating a hidden token
To create a secure brand there are a few things you need to do. First we define protected which means it cannot be read, cannot be changed, and expires at some point. This means that when the user authenticates you must store three pieces in the token:
- User identification
- Expiry date
- Message digest
The first thing is obvious and we have already covered it. The expiration date will be the date on which the trademark is no longer valid. To use expiration you simply check this value on the server. There is no magic here. If the current date is greater than the expiration date you are rejecting the token.
The message digest is a piece that many people forget. Encryption alone does not protect the integrity of the message: the user can change the token and the output will still produce the data. Now the effect of changing the sign is often negative, but there is no guarantee of that. An authenticated user can, over time, create an authentication token. This is where the message digest comes in — you can identify this as a hash. Attach one of these to tokens and it becomes impossible for an attacker to issue a valid token.
So now we have the parameters we want in our token. We will also need our private key, and based on the initialization algorithm. Once we have all of these we need to get this data to the client. To do this we put everything together with the following steps.
- Create a map to store the user ID and expiration date
- Store the data to create a byte array
- Create your own digest (hash) of the byte array
- Add your digest to the byte array
- Write the byte array
- A link converts an array of bytes to a string
- Use the string as a value in the cookie
Look at the system and see that our hash is also stored. If hashing is done after encryption then any attacker can create a valid hash again. The above system creates a secure token. Now when the request is sent to the server you change the above steps as follows.
- Find the value of the cookie
- A link resolves the string into a byte array
- Decrypt the byte array
- Remove the hash from the list
- Create a new hash for the remaining list
- Fails if the hashes are not the same
- Remove the bytes to get the map
- It will fail if the current time is greater than the timeout on the map
- Bring your ID to the map
In the decoding process you have a number of clear steps where you can fail, but you also have a number of less clear checks. Obviously if the data is too small for the hash you fail. You can also check that the deserialized type is the correct type by counting its members. If anything is wrong you can fail and reject the signal.
Using the described method you can have an authenticated user without needing to have server-side parameters. This method is safe and works with all browsers. Also note that you can store more information in the tag, not just the id. Note that cookies have a length limit. For even more security you can use private keys from time to time. All in all a great way to identify and store user information without relying on session data.
If you are interested I have a working version of this written in PHP. It is part of ems-php-utils project on launchpad. I have two advanced modules, ems_encrypt_datalink and ems_decrypt_datalink, which do all the steps and handle the PHP and encryption tidbits.
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#Sessionless #Authentication #Encrypted #Tokens