Challenges Of Viet Nam When Participate In Wto Textile & Apparel Industry in Turkey

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Textile & Apparel Industry in Turkey

Market Summary

The textile and clothing industry is a major contributor to the Turkish economy. This industry has been called the locomotive of the Turkish Economy for many years. Turkey’s textile and clothing exports continued to rise recently after falling in January, edging out the EU and US shares.

Industrialization efforts in the 60s and 70s led to the modern textile industry in Turkey. At first, the unit operated as a small training course. But the sector grew rapidly and in the 1970s they started exporting. Today, Turkey is one of the most important textile and clothing producers and exporters.

Textile and clothing manufacturers in Turkey began to transfer production to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In the last three years, the textile and clothing industry in Turkey has faced difficulties, after doing well in the eighties and the first part of the nineties.

China’s textile exports after a decades-long hiatus ended on January 1, 2005 and the World Trade Organization believes that within three years the Asian giant could be producing half of the world’s textiles, up from 17% in 2003.

The end of the quota regime has raised fears of job losses around the world, including in Turkey, whose clothing and apparel exports are worth about $20 billion a year.

Therefore, it is important to understand the role of Turkish textiles and clothing, the weakness and strength they have in the international market.

The current trends in Clothing and Apparel in Turkey

The textile and clothing sector has been the backbone of Turkey’s economy and an important part of industrial production and economic development over the past two decades. In the 1980s, it was a leading sector of the global economy and the foreign exchange earnings generated by this strong investment contributed significantly to the economy as a whole. The textile sector continued to be one of the main contributors to the Turkish economy, being one of the fastest growing sectors in the 1990s with an average growth rate of 12.2% per year, while the Turkish economy grew by an average of 5.2% per year. Total investment in this sector exceeded US$ 150 billion, of which more than US$ 50 billion was invested in the last 5-10 years.

The textile industry started in the 1960s on a small scale, has developed rapidly and turned Turkey into a global competitor.

The total number of companies in this group, which are controlled (95%) by these organizations, is about 44,000 and 25% of them are exporters. The garment industry is made up mainly (80%) of small and medium-sized companies while the technical textile production has been done by large companies. Today, about 20% of Turkey’s 500 largest companies are involved in the textile and clothing industry.

Low labor costs, qualified workers, cheap raw materials have greatly contributed to the growth of the sector; and the liberal economic environment and export-led policies of the past two decades.

The production cost of this sector is more than US$ 20 billion. Employment in this sector is estimated to be around 4 million people (2.5 million directly employed and another 1.5 million indirectly through sub-sectors). Government figures also show that about 500,000 workers in the sector are due to unregistered workers.

The apparel sector exports about 60% of its production. Energy efficiency rates are around 75% especially among export manufacturers.

Turkey is also among the world’s top ten producers of woolen textiles, carpets, synthetic fibers, polyester and polyamide fibers. Although the third producer of polyester in Europe is a joint venture between Turkey and the US, Turkey produces 15% of Western Europe’s capacity.

Financial Contributions

The textile and clothing industry is a major contributor to the Turkish economy. For example, textile and clothing companies calculate the following:

. 10% in GNP

. 40% for industrial production

. 30% of employee production

. 35% of export revenue

The textile and clothing sector contributes more than 20 billion USD to the Gross National Product. This sector is very important for its export profits; its share in the country’s total sales has been between 33-39% since 1990.

The main export market for Turkish textiles and clothing is the EU countries, which account for approximately 65% ​​of all textile and clothing exports. Turkey is the 2nd largest exporter of clothing and textiles to the EU with a share of 8.2% and 4.8% of EU exports since 2003.

Export

Textile and clothing exports increased by 14.6% annually during 1980-2003. Especially until the second half of the 1990s, the sector’s exports increased at a higher rate than Turkey’s total exports and the total exports of textiles and clothing. In 2003, the goods of this sector amounted to $ 15.1 billion, having a share of 32.6% of all exports. Exports increased to 23% in 2003, which remains high until 2002. The increase in clothing exports since 1986 reflects efforts to produce additional products.

After the EU, the USA is the largest and emerging market. Turkey is the 19th largest exporter of clothing and the ninth in the USA with a share of 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. Apart from the EU and the US market, the new markets are the North African countries namely, Tunisia, Egypt and Algeria; Middle Eastern countries namely Syria, Israel and Saudi Arabia; Eastern European countries namely Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary; and CIS countries. This section covers sections in the USA and Canada only. Russia was also the largest market for Turkey’s textile and clothing industry until the financial crisis in August 1998. It was the third largest clothing market and the ninth largest textile market in 1997. Russia remains a reliable market for the textile and clothing industry. and its power to use more that will come out in the following years especially after the development of a better integration of the world’s economy and the prospect of WTO membership.

Cotton market

Turkey is a very important country for cotton, which is beneficial in the production of clothing, clothing. Turkey is a traditional cotton producer and uses this advantage in the textile and clothing industry. Turkey is number 1 in Europe and number 6 in the world in terms of cotton production which produces about 800,000-900,000 tons per person.

a year. In addition, with the completion of irrigation projects within the Southeastern Anatolian Project (GAP), which is Turkey’s largest development program, current cotton production is expected to double by 2005.

In the 2003-04 season, Turkey produced 893,000 tons of cotton. About 30% of the cotton produced is high quality cotton and the rest is medium quality. The cotton industry provides competition to the textile industry, which uses cotton as its primary raw material.

Cotton Market Strategies

Countries where cotton yarn is exported are Italy, Portugal, Greece and Belgium and cotton fabrics to the UK, Italy, USA and Belgium. Although Turkey used to export cotton, its trade changed in 1992 and since then, Turkey has been exporting cotton because domestic demand has exceeded what is available. Apart from cotton, Turkey has great potential in the production of yarn, wool and mohair. Turkey ranks 9th in textile fiber, 8th in wool and 3rd in mohair dyeing in the world.

Home Textile Industry

In addition to the Turkish textile industry, the Turkish textile industry has also shown growth in production and export. In recent years domestic textile production has shown steady growth due to the rise in demand for domestic and foreign textiles. The Turkish textile industry has been increasing production and export in recent years. Almost all types of home textiles are made in Turkey. These may be listed as follows in order of import: bedclothes, bedspreads, table linens, towels, bath towels, blankets, curtains, laces, interior blinds, curtains or bed linens, blankets, cushions, pillows, quilts, eiderdowns .

In the home textile sector, in addition to large companies there are small and medium-sized companies scattered throughout the country. As part of the textile industry, the home textile sector accounts for 3.2% of Turkey’s gross domestic product and has become an important part of Turkey’s economy. European countries are the most important markets for Turkey’s home textiles. Currently, Germany, the UK, France, the USA, the Netherlands and the Russian Federation are the main markets for Turkey’s home textiles. New markets such as Poland, Hungary, Romania and the CIS countries are becoming more important.

Foreign Investment in the Sector

The products of the Turkish textile and clothing industry have a good reputation in foreign markets due to the availability of high-quality cotton in Turkey, the extensive use of CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) and the rise of the industry. number of eligible workers.

The end

The sector is aware of the global market’s impact on the demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products and strives to adapt itself to this through compliance with regulations and technology.

However, it is difficult to maintain its competitive position in a global market full of emerging players. Therefore, manufacturers have shifted their work to additional products and creating brand names. Currently, 30% of Turkish manufacturers have their own designs and brands in international markets.

As current research reveals, developed countries will have a smaller share in global textile production while developing countries will increase their production capacity to meet the increasing demand. It is also said that by the year 2005, developing countries will increase their textile production capacity. The US which has an estimated 200% increase in the number of people who use textiles is estimated to have a 32% decrease in self-sufficiency by the year 2005.

Turkey, which complies with European standards and regulations regarding the environment, health, quality, and safety, wants to promote the production of renewable energy products, in a time when the Turkish textile industry will be known for its quality. trademarks and will be the prices of the Made in Turkey trademark.

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