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Top Ways to Prevent Data Loss
Data loss hampers any business, especially in the age of big data where companies rely on digital information to improve their marketing, communications, and engagement. Reducing the chance of data loss is an important part of a data management strategy.
The first goal should be to prevent data loss from happening in the first place. There are many reasons that can cause data death. Some of them are listed below:
1) Hard drive failure
2) Accidental deletion (user error)
3) Computer viruses and malware infections
4) Steal a laptop
5) Power failure
6) Damage caused by coffee or water spills; And so on.
However, if a loss does occur, there are several good strategies you can use to increase your chances of recovery.
Second, don’t put all your savings in the cloud. The cloud is important for cost savings, but it has some disadvantages that should not be overlooked. Many examples of data loss have occurred from an employee simply dropping their computer or hard drive, so talk to your employees about best practices. SD cards are very fragile and should not be used as a long-term storage medium.
Here is a look at the top ways you can protect your data from death and unauthorized access.
Bring it back early and often
One of the most important things to protect your data from being lost is to back it up regularly. How often do you have to pay back? This depends on how much data you can afford to lose if your system crashes completely? Weekend job? Day job? An hour’s work?
You can use the built-in Windows backup utility (ntbackup.exe) to create a backup. You can use Wizard Mode to simplify the process of creating and restoring backups or you can schedule backups manually and you can schedule backups to run automatically.
There are also many third-party backup software that can provide more advanced options. Whichever program you use, it is necessary to keep a copy of your backup offsite in the event of a fire, hurricane, or other natural disaster that may destroy your backup tapes or disks along with the original data.
Update your backups
You always need one backup system. The general rule is 3-2-1. You should have 3 backups of everything that is important. They must be stored in two different formats, such as in the cloud and on the hard drive. There should always be an on-site backup in case your office is damaged.
Use file type protection with the share section
To protect others from your data, the first step is to set permissions on data files and folders. If you have data on network shares, you can set share permissions to control what user accounts can and cannot access files across the network. With Windows 2000/XP, this is done by clicking the Permissions button in the shared section of the properties sheet for the file or folder.
However, these shared session permissions do not apply to the person using the local computer where the data is stored. When you share a computer with someone else, you must use file permissions (also called NTFS permissions, because they are available on files/folders stored on NTFS-formatted partitions). File type permissions are set using the Security tab on the property sheet and are much more restrictive than share permissions.
In both cases, you can set permissions for user accounts or groups, and you can allow or deny different levels of access from read-only to full control.
Password protection certificates
Many productivity applications, such as Microsoft Office applications and Adobe Acrobat, allow you to add passwords to your documents. To open the document, you must enter a password. To protect passwords in Microsoft Word 2003, go to Tools | Options and click Security tab. You may need a password to open the file and/or to edit it. You can also set the type of encryption to use.
You can also use zipping software such as WinZip or PKZip to compress and unzip documents.
Use EFS encryption
Windows 2000, XP Pro, and Server 2003 support Encrypting File System (EFS). You can use this certificate-based encryption method to protect files and folders stored on an NTFS-formatted partition. Hiding a file or folder is as easy as selecting a checkbox; Just click the Advanced button on the General tab of its property sheet. Note that you cannot use EFS encryption and NTFS compression at the same time.
EFS uses a combination of asymmetric and symmetric encryption, for security and performance. To write files with EFS, the user must have an EFS certificate, which can be issued by the Windows certification authority or signed by yourself if there is no CA on the network. EFS files can be opened by the user whose account was written to them or by a designated agent. With Windows XP/2003, but not Windows 2000, you can also choose which user accounts have permission to access your EFS-backed files.
Note that EFS is for disk data protection. If you send an EFS file over the Internet and someone uses a sniffer to intercept data packets, they will be able to read the contents of the file.
Use disk encryption
There are many third-party products that allow you to save the entire disk. Full disk encryption locks everything in the disk drive/partition and is visible to the user. Data is encrypted when it is written to the hard disk and automatically modified before it is stored in memory. Some of these programs can create invisible drives within partitions that act like a hidden disk within a disk. Some users only see the contents of the “external” disk.
Disk encryption products can be used to encrypt removable USB drives, flash drives, and more. Some allow you to create passwords along with secondary passwords with lower privileges that you can assign to other users. Examples include PGP Whole Disk Encryption and DriveCrypt, among many others.
Use public keys
A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a system for managing public/private key groups and digital certificates. Because keys and certificates are issued by a trusted third party (a certificate authority, either an internal certificate server installed on your network or a public one, such as Verisign), certificate-based security is strong.
You can protect the data you want to share with someone by encrypting it with the recipient’s public key, which is available to everyone. The only person who can decipher it is the one who has the private key that matches the public key.
Hide information with steganography
You can use steganography software to hide data within other data. For example, you can hide a message inside a .JPG image file or an MP3 music file, or even inside another file (although the latter is difficult because sound files do not have much information that can be changed by the hidden message). Steganography does not encrypt the message, so it is used in conjunction with encryption software. The information stored is first stored and hidden inside another file by the steganography software.
Some steganographic methods require private key exchange and others use public/private keys. A popular example of steganography software is StegoMagic, a free software that encrypts messages and hides them in .TXT, .WAV, or .BMP.
Protect data in transit with IP protection
Your information can be captured as it travels over the network by a hacker with sniffer software (also called network monitoring or protocol analysis software). To protect your data in transit, you can use Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) – but the sending and receiving systems must support it. Windows 2000 and later Microsoft operating systems support IPsec. Software does not need to be aware of IPsec because it operates at a lower level of the Internet standard. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) is a protocol that IPsec uses to encrypt data. It can work in a tunnel, gateway security, or in transit, for end-to-end security. To use IPsec in Windows, you must create an IPsec policy and select the authentication method and IP filters it will use. IPsec settings are configured via the TCP/IP protocol property sheet, under Advanced TCP/IP Settings.
Protect wireless networks
The data you send over a wireless network is more likely to be transmitted than the data sent over an Ethernet network. Hackers don’t need access to the Internet or its hardware; anyone with a wireless laptop and a high-gain antenna can capture data and/or access a network and access information stored there if the wireless access point is not properly configured.
You must send or store data over wireless networks that use encryption, especially Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), which is stronger than the Wired Equivalent Protocol (WEP).
Use rights management to maintain control
If you want to send data to others but are concerned about protecting it after it leaves your computer, you can use Windows Rights Management Services (RMS) to control what recipients can do with it. For example, you can set permissions so that the recipient can read the Word document you sent but not edit, copy, or save it. You can prevent recipients from receiving email messages that you send them and you can set documents or messages to expire at a certain date/time so that the recipient will not be able to access them after that time.
To use RMS, you need a Windows Server 2003 server configured as an RMS server. Users need a client program or an Internet Explorer add-on to access RMS-protected documents. Authorized users also need to download the certificate from the RMS server.
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